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Version: V1

How it works

Inserting identities

An identity is comprised of the following information:

  1. An EdDSA private key. Note that it is not an Ethereum private key.
  2. An identity nullifier, whih is a random 32-byte value.
  3. An identity trapdoor, whih is a random 32-byte value.

An identity commitment is the Pedersen hash of:

  1. The public key associated with the identity's private key.
  2. The identity nullifier.
  3. The identity trapdoor.

To register an identity, the user must insert their identity commitment into Semaphore's identity tree. They can do this by calling the Semaphore contract's insertIdentity(uint256 _identityCommitment) function. See the API reference for more information.

Broadcasting signals

To broadcast a signal, the user must invoke this Semaphore contract function:

broadcastSignal(
bytes memory _signal,
uint256[8] memory _proof,
uint256 _root,
uint256 _nullifiersHash,
uint232 _externalNullifier
)
  • _signal: the signal to broadcast.
  • _proof: a zk-SNARK proof (see below).
  • _root: The root of the identity tree, where the user's identity commitment is the last-inserted leaf.
  • _nullifiersHash: A uniquely derived hash of the external nullifier, user's identity nullifier, and the Merkle path index to their identity commitment. It ensures that a user cannot broadcast a signal with the same external nullifier more than once.
  • _externalNullifier: The external nullifier at which the signal is broadcast.

To zk-SNARK proof must satisfy the constraints created by Semaphore's zk-SNARK circuit as described below:

The zk-SNARK circuit

The semaphore-base.circom circuit helps to prove the following:

That the identity commitment exists in the Merkle tree

Private inputs:

  • identity_pk: the user's EdDSA public key
  • identity_nullifier: a random 32-byte value which the user should save
  • identity_trapdoor: a random 32-byte value which the user should save
  • identity_path_elements: the values along the Merkle path to the user's identity commitment
  • identity_path_index[n_levels]: the direction (left/right) per tree level corresponding to the Merkle path to the user's identity commitment

Public inputs:

  • root: The Merkle root of the identity tree

Procedure:

The circuit hashes the public key, identity nullifier, and identity trapdoor to generate an identity commitment. It then verifies the Merkle proof against the Merkle root and the identity commitment.

That the signal was only broadcasted once

Private inputs:

  • identity_nullifier: as above
  • identity_path_index: as above

Public inputs:

  • external_nullifier: the 29-byte external nullifier - see above
  • nullifiers_hash: the hash of the identity nullifier, external nullifier, and Merkle path index (identity_path_index)

Procedure:

The circuit hashes the given identity nullifier, external nullifier, and Merkle path index, and checks that it matches the given nullifiers hash. Additionally, the smart contract ensures that it has not previously seen this nullifiers hash. This way, double-signalling is impossible.

That the signal was truly broadcasted by the user who generated the proof

Private inputs:

  • identity_pk: as above
  • auth_sig_r: the r value of the signature of the signal
  • auth_sig_s: the s value of the signature of the signal

Public inputs:

  • signal_hash: the hash of the signal
  • external_nullifier: the 29-byte external nullifier - see above

Procedure:

The circuit hashes the signal hash and the external nullifier, and verifies this output against the given public key and signature. This ensures the authenticity of the signal and prevents front-running attacks.

Cryptographic primitives

Semaphore uses MiMC for the Merkle tree, Pedersen commmitments for the identity commitments, Blake2 for the nullifiers hash, and EdDSA for the signature.

MiMC is a relatively new hash function. We use the recommended MiMC construction from Albrecht et al, and there is a prize to break MiMC at http://mimchash.org which has not been claimed yet.

We have also implemented a version of Semaphore which uses the Poseidon hash function for the Merkle tree and EdDSA signature verification. This may have better security than MiMC, allows identity insertions to save about 20% gas, and roughly halves the proving time. Note, however, that the Poseidon-related circuits and EVM bytecode generator have not been audited, so use it with caution. To use it, checkout the feat/poseidon branch of this repository.